Department of Informatics

Lund University School of Economics and Management

VacSam – Digital e-Service for Coordinated Vaccination Control

Research project

Vaccination is a global issue of increasing importance. Vaccinations are administered in accordance with schemas which vary per country. These vaccination coordination problems can be alleviated by an IS service. Development and research of this are in focus for the VacSam project.

The Digital Service

The functional result of VacSam will be a digital service for vaccination schemas according to Swedish standards, independent of the country or countries where previous vaccinations have been given. The service itself will be used by physicians in many health-care sectors. Coordination is based on the rules used by each country included in the IS service knowledge base, containing vaccination schemas, regulations and instructions on different vaccines.

The digital service will be developed using rule-oriented methods and service-oriented design. The development of a service addressing the coordination of vaccination requirements also creates a knowledge base which can be utilized in the future development of digital, inter-organisational services. Suitable areas are those which use rule-based decisions, where taxation can be one example.

Expected Results

The project plan covers three years, of which two years are allocated for parallel research and development of the service and one year for research and evaluation of the service.

Research Results

The VacSam project will study rule-oriented IS development as well as how inter-organisational development can coordinate several authorities and organizational levels to create a shared service.

The research results will include an evaluation of the developmental methodology for inter-organizational creation of IS services with a business process and business rules perspective. At least two research papers based on the project will be published.

The PhD student is expected to produce a doctoral dissertation on process and service development based on the project.

Development Results

The functional result will be a digital service for vaccination schemas according to Swedish standards, independent of the country or countries where previous vaccinations have been given.

Project Members

The following organisations are members of the VacSam project: Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control (SMI), Lund University, and Cybercom Group. Users of the digital service are recruited from the county councils and VACSATC (Vaccine Safety - Attitudes, Training and Communication). Apart from these members the county councils, municipalities, The National Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen) and ECDC (European Center for Disease Prevention and Control) are concerned. ECDC has developed a model for national vaccination schemas for the EU. Vaccination schemas for the rest of the world can be obtained from WHO (World Health Organization).

Project Funding

The project is funded during three years with 50% by the participant organizations and 50% by The Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA). Total project budget is 3.4 MSEK (approx. 300 000 EUR).


Annika Linde, SMI, Professor, head of project
Odd Steen, Informatics - LU, Associate Professor, PhD
Sven Carlsson, Informatics - LU, Professor, research coordinator
Nicklas Holmberg, Informatics - LU, MSc, PhD Student
Eva Netterlid, SMI
Cybercom Group


Carlsson, S., Heijbel, H., Linde, A., Lundin, H., Ottosson G. & Steen, O. (2008): VacSam – Digital eService for Coordinated Vaccination Control. Project application to VINNOVA. Department of Informatics, Lund University.

Holmberg, N. (2010): Business Driven SOA through BRA - an approach. LUSEM Department of Informatics Ph.D Research Proposal. Publisher: LUSEM

Holmberg, N. & Steen, O. (2010): Business Rules Friendly or not so Business Rules Friendly Business Concepts Modelling - Early Experiences from a Business Rules Project on a Digital Vaccination Recommendation Service. The 33rd Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia. August 22-24, 2010, Rebild, North Jutland, Denmark.

Holmberg, N. & Steen, O. (2010): Better Support for User Participation using Business Rules Approach? 19th International Conference on Information Systems Development (ISD 2010). August 25 - 27, 2010, Prague, Czech Republic. Publisher: Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science.

Holmberg, N., Steen, O. & Carlsson, S.(2011): Service Orienting the Swedish Vaccination Recommendation Activity with the Business Rules Centric Digital Service VacSam. Sixth International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology (DESRIST 2011). May 5 - 6, 2011, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, US. Publisher: Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science.

Holmberg, N. & Steen, O. (2011): Business Process and Business Rules Modelling In Concert for e-Service Design and Business Alignment. 1st International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science. May 7 - 9, 2011, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands.

Lundin, H., Steen, O., Holmberg, N. (2011): VacSam - a rule based vaccination programme. Public Service Review. European Union. Issue 21. pp. 408-409. Publisher: Ltd.

Holmberg, N. & Johansson, B. (2012): Viewing Enterprise Resource Palnning Systems as Services: A Conceptual View based on Practical Experiences of designing Information Systems as Services.The 24th International Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering (CAiSE’12), International Workshop of Agility of Enterprise Systems (AgilES). June 25 – 29, Gdańsk, Poland. Publisher: Springer Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing.

Holmberg, N. & Johansson, B. (): Designing Implementation Processes of ERPs using a SOA based Perspective.

Holmberg, N. & Steen, O. (2012): The Service Oriented Business Process and Separation of Concerns: Modelling Paradigms for Architecture and Business Processes. The 35th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia (IRIS35). August 17-20, 2012, Sigtuna, Sigtunahöjden, Sweden.

Holmberg, N. (2012): The Purity of Separation of Concerns and the Quest towards the Service Oriented Business Process -A Design Approach for Designing a Business Rules Governed Service Oriented Business Process. Department of Informatics Ph.D Part Thisis. Publisher: LUSEM

Holmberg, N. & Steen, O. (): The Third Era of Information Systems Design for Business Service Orientation - Designed Flexibility.



Nicklas Holmberg
Senior lecturer, head of department
Phone: +46 46 222 80 29
Room: EC2-201

Nicklas Holmberg

Odd Steen
Associate professor
Phone: +46 46 222 81 98
Room: EC2-231

Odd Steen